Update 20120507 [on literature review]

1. Seems like William James’ somatic theories, which suggested that bodily reaction comes first and affects the emotion human expresses, was dominating in emotion study area before cognitive theories were developed in the 1880s. The James-Lange theory had until 1953 been all abandoned by most scholars. But later there was a neo-Jamesian theory appeared which was based on James’ theories.

2. I read Bruce Hull’s articles a second time after i found some info about the relationship between emotion and mood. Got two more issues:
a. There’s a clear distinction between mood and emotion (non-object and object, long-last and short time, incapable to be expressed and capable to be expressed), but i can’t find a formal citation for this important part.
b. In Bruce’s two articles, Explaining the Emotion People Experience in Suburban Parks and Mood as a Product of Leisure: Causes and Consequences, seems like he thought mood was equal to emotion, and use the PAD coordinate to describe both mood and emotion. While in Wikipedia, it was said that the PAD emotional state model … uses three numerical directions to represent all emotions.[Citations here] ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PAD_emotional_state_model )

Basically i got a clearer logical backbone for my research:
Water features in urban parks: Entertain the city
Water feature in urban parks –> emotion (acquired from water feature in vision) –> leisure (as a purpose of visiting urban parks) –> mood (as a productive of leisure) [–> urban social activities like emotional labor]
The subject will be narrowed down to people age above 18 (Will be further discussed)
I’ve found some articles support the relationship between mood and emotional labor (shown in last part in square brackets), it will be part of the conclusion and will only be an evidence of the critical position of this research.
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Literature Review Draft [Keep updated]

“A mood is a relatively long lasting emotional state. Moods differ from emotions in that they are less specific, less intense, and less likely to be triggered by a particular stimulus or event.

“A mood is a distinguishing, emotional quality or character, a value of feeling at a certain time, an existing emotional tone or attitude.

— Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mood_(psychology)

*     *     *     *     *

“Emotion is a complex psychophysiological experience of an individual’s state of mind as interacting with biochemical (internal) and environmental (external) influences. In humans, emotion fundamentally involves “physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience.” Emotion is associated with moodtemperamentpersonality,disposition, and motivation. Motivations direct and energize behavior, while emotions provide the affective component to motivation, positive or negative.

“No definitive emotion classification system exists, though numerous taxonomies have been proposed. Some categorizations include:[citation needed]

— Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion

*     *     *     *     *

Leisure, or free time, is time spent away from businesswork, and domestic chores. It is also the periods of time before or after necessary activities such as eatingsleeping and, where it is compulsory, education.

— Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leisure

(In my thesis, the term “leisure” specifically refers to time spend on site)

*     *     *     *     *

Mood vs Emotion

Mood and emotion are words that are used interchangeably. Both emotion and mood are related to each other that makes the distinction a bit hard.

One of the main differences between mood and emotion can be seen in the expression. Mood is something a person may not express whereas emotions may be expressed. Another difference is that moods may last longer than the emotions.

Emotions are aroused in people by some specific objects or situations. On the other hand, moods are not created in someone because of any specific object or any particular situation. For example, if a person gets angry, he expresses that emotion towards someone. If a person is in a sad mood, he cannot express it to others. The concept that emotion is object- based has been proven even during Aristotle’s times. The object- directed distinction has always been a criterion to differentiate between moods and emotions.

Mood may for a long period whereas emotions only last for the time being. An anger or happiness pertains to the time it is felt. On the other hand, sadness or any other mood is something that can be felt for many days.

When compared to moods, emotions are more extreme.

Emotion is a word that has been derived from the French emouvoir. This word is based on the Latin word emovere, which means ‘out’ and movere which means ‘move’. Mood is a word that is derived from the Old English word of Mod, which represented military courage. This word also referred to personal courage at some particular time.

Summary

1. Mood is something a person may not express whereas emotions may be expressed.

2. Mood may last for a long period whereas emotions may last only for the time being.

3. Emotions are aroused in people by some specific objects or situations. On the other hand, moods are not created in someone because of any specific object or any particular situation.

4. If a person gets angry, he expresses that emotion towards someone. If a person is in a sad mood, he cannot express it to others.

5. When compared to moods, emotions are more extreme.

6. Emotion is a word that has been derived from the French emouvoir.

7. Mood is a word that is derived from the Old English word of Mod, which represented military courage.

— DifferentBetween.net, http://www.differencebetween.net/language/difference-between-mood-and-emotion/

*     *     *     *     *

“leisure is a positive experience accompanied by satisfying and pleasurable moods, emotions or feelings (Mannell, 1980:77).

“The term ‘mood’ is used to denote a specific set of subjective feelings which occur as a consequence of everyday leisure experiences (i.e., excitement, relaxation, awe, happiness).

“… impact of moods on such socially relevant things as the immune system, cognitive skills, and helping behavior.

“Hammitt (1980) and More and Payne (1978) found that moods varied as a result of participation in leisure activities.

“Stone (1987) … found that leisure were significantly associated with positive and desirable moods.

“Mannell, Zusanek, and Larson (1988) reported that leisure activities tend to evoke ‘positive’ mood states.

“… Gunter (1987) identified eight properties of leisure: five of which seem related to moods (pleasure, enjoyment, fantasy, adventure, spontaneity).

“… behavioral, motoric, and physiological states which occur concurrently with subjective feelings of mood and to use these as indicators to denote the onset of mood. [Mood can not be expressed in the same way emotion does]

(about PAD emotional state model)

“It is a measure of how wide awake the organism is, of how ready it is to react. The lower pole of the continuum is represented by sleep or coma, while the upper pole would be reached in state of frantic excitement (Berlyne, 1960:48). Dominance refers to the feeling of control and/or ability to manipulate a situation. … Pleasure is characterized by feelings of satisfaction, comfort, enjoyment, and beauty.

“Light, sound, smell, vibration, taste, temperature all influence pleasure, arousal and dominance.

(In Recreation Activity)

“… whatever the environment is, it is likely to have a significant impact on mood state.

(From the rest parts of this article)

/* Mood has impacts on attention, cognition, behavior and physiology as well as on memories, planning and health.

*     *     *     *     *

“In general, people prefer parks that are both pleasant and arousing.

“Emotions are suggested to be pancultural, innate, and independent of sense modality (Izard, 1997; Osgood, 1969).

“Mehrabian and Russell (1974) present arousal, pleasure, and a third dimension, dominance, as a basis for environmental psychology and review evidence supporting these constructs as legitimate dimensions of  human emotion.

“Three analogous dimensions — activity (arousal), evaluation (pleasure), and potency (dominance) — are supported by the substantial body of semantic differential evidence collected by Osgood and associates (e.g., Osgood rt al, 1957; Osgood, 1969).

“‘Emergent properties’ of molar environments create situations where the sum of the molecular parts may not explain the experience of the whole place.

“specific characteristics of the park will explain some of the variance in residents’ emotional responses to parks.

“one of the reasons people visit parks is to experience an emotion not commonly experienced in a ‘normal’ suburban or urban environment.

— R. Bruce Hull IV, Antony Harvey, Explaining the emotion people experience in suburban parks, Environment and Behavior, Vol. 21 No. 3, May 1989 pp. 323-345

Update 20120501 [Upgrade version]

  1. Literature review:
  • The process of leisure: cognition or emotion? (Find adequate evidence and talk about briefly, leave the debate be, no further discussion)
  • Why emotion should be considered in landscape design?

à Four factors affect emotion

à Emotion could be affected by environment.

  1. Research:
  • General concept:

à Predict how a design changes people’s emotion through changing the environment on site (through vision, temperature, moisture, sound, etc.)

àEvaluate potential leisure level on site

  • Specific topic:

àHow water feature affect people’s leisure

  • Function of water feature
  • Approaches (through which water feature) affect leisure
  • Affecting factors: weather, seasons, other people, etc.
  • Audience (Divide into category, i.e., age)
  • Case Study
  • Conclusion

Schedule:

Summer 2012                    Literature review

Emotion and leisure

Precedents on leisure evaluation

Water feature in urban landscape (Types and functions)

Pick up (or make) stimuli (for survey), investigation, and survey

Pick up site(s) for case study

Start case study procedure

Fall 2012                              Analyze data

Some more survey maybe

Winter 2012                       Finalize data analysis

Draw a draft conclusion

Full check on all steps

Spring 2013                         Start thesis writing

Summer 2013                    End case study

Finalize thesis

R. Bruce Hull IV, Antony Harvey, Explaining the emotion people experience in suburban parks, Environment and Behavior, Vol. 21 No. 3, May 1989 pp. 323-345

R. Bruce Hull IV, Mood as a product of leisure: causes and consequences, Journal of Leisure Research, 1990, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 99-111

Michelle R. Greene, Aude Oliva, The briefest of glances: the time course of natural scene understanding, Psycological Science, 2009, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 464-472                                                               [NOT COMPLETELY UNDERSTAND]

Update 20120418 [Need to be revised]

Topic (Temporary title)

Application of semiotic approaches in urban landscape architecture design process

Advisory committee

Dr. Byoung-Suk Kweon, Associate Professor, Committee Chair

Dr. David Myers, Associate Professor, Committee Member

Someone in PSYC Department

Problem statement

Treat the urban landscape design as a problem shooting process on the point of view of people in environment.

Critical Position

Try to add a new way to urban landscape design method which open the designers’ mind throughout the design process.

Abstract

As our language develops, it becomes more and more accurate on describing our world. Since the way we describe things is an anti-process of invention and improvement, our languages becomes an obstacle between us and free imagination. For example, the application of benches in public space is based on our needs of recreational infrastructures. Benches in public space provide us with the opportunity of applying sitting posture, thus effectively reduce the burden of our legs which carries the whole weight of our body when we stand. In order to keep our language simple enough for daily use, we added in the word “bench” to our vocabulary to describe a piece of furniture, which typically offers seating for several people (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bench, Wikipedia). This type of vocabulary contains a wealth of information which at least part of it is often ignored in the daily use. When come up with these words, people’s first impression is often a specific instance rather than the common characteristics of all elements in this set. From a linguistic point of view, the essence of this phenomenon is, a collective noun is used as a proper noun by at least one party of the speakers and the listeners in the communication. In response to this phenomenon, I’m trying to develop a different way which emphasis more on the feeling of people in urban environments to improve our design method.

To achieve this goal, the first priority is to change the language of design. Instead of thinking what kind of specific infrastructures is needed on a site, we go a little deeper and thinking what kind of feeling is needed on a site. In this way we get more options on the same design. For example, instead of thinking “people will need a parasol here”, we think “what will provide the cool feeling under sunshine”. Thus we have several options: shade, breeze, water feature, air-conditioner, etc. Then we have more options under each of these labels like parasol, canopy, building, sculpture and even other person or animals could provide shade. Since not all of these options are reasonable, we need to optimize our choice range by adding other factors when we reach the substantial landscaping elements: air-conditioner cannot meet our sustainable requirement when placing in an exterior space, building a fountain will probably crash our budget, buildings might block the horizon or a charming waterfront view, etc. Sometimes the result might be nothing but a parasol, but the process provides a strong reason to put a parasol on this particular site. (At this point I’m hesitating on the necessity of developing a set of simple but intuitive symbols to describe people’s feelings in environment.)

Keywords

Urban landscape design, people’s feeling in environment, language of urban landscape design

Content frame

Introduction

Literature Review

/*Directions:

  1. Semiotic description of human emotions;
  2. People’s emotions in environment;
  3. Landscape design in perspective of the user group.
  4. Language of landscape (Anne Whiston Spirn’s theory and Lawrence Halprin’s theory)*/

/*Need to be further developed*/

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Site Analysis

Opportunities and constrains

Design element

Optimizing

Design approach

Conclusion and envision

/*Design Example

Community Park: Pick a site in DC and design with this theory.*/