Literature Review Draft [Keep updated]

“A mood is a relatively long lasting emotional state. Moods differ from emotions in that they are less specific, less intense, and less likely to be triggered by a particular stimulus or event.

“A mood is a distinguishing, emotional quality or character, a value of feeling at a certain time, an existing emotional tone or attitude.

— Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mood_(psychology)

*     *     *     *     *

“Emotion is a complex psychophysiological experience of an individual’s state of mind as interacting with biochemical (internal) and environmental (external) influences. In humans, emotion fundamentally involves “physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience.” Emotion is associated with moodtemperamentpersonality,disposition, and motivation. Motivations direct and energize behavior, while emotions provide the affective component to motivation, positive or negative.

“No definitive emotion classification system exists, though numerous taxonomies have been proposed. Some categorizations include:[citation needed]

— Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion

*     *     *     *     *

Leisure, or free time, is time spent away from businesswork, and domestic chores. It is also the periods of time before or after necessary activities such as eatingsleeping and, where it is compulsory, education.

— Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leisure

(In my thesis, the term “leisure” specifically refers to time spend on site)

*     *     *     *     *

Mood vs Emotion

Mood and emotion are words that are used interchangeably. Both emotion and mood are related to each other that makes the distinction a bit hard.

One of the main differences between mood and emotion can be seen in the expression. Mood is something a person may not express whereas emotions may be expressed. Another difference is that moods may last longer than the emotions.

Emotions are aroused in people by some specific objects or situations. On the other hand, moods are not created in someone because of any specific object or any particular situation. For example, if a person gets angry, he expresses that emotion towards someone. If a person is in a sad mood, he cannot express it to others. The concept that emotion is object- based has been proven even during Aristotle’s times. The object- directed distinction has always been a criterion to differentiate between moods and emotions.

Mood may for a long period whereas emotions only last for the time being. An anger or happiness pertains to the time it is felt. On the other hand, sadness or any other mood is something that can be felt for many days.

When compared to moods, emotions are more extreme.

Emotion is a word that has been derived from the French emouvoir. This word is based on the Latin word emovere, which means ‘out’ and movere which means ‘move’. Mood is a word that is derived from the Old English word of Mod, which represented military courage. This word also referred to personal courage at some particular time.

Summary

1. Mood is something a person may not express whereas emotions may be expressed.

2. Mood may last for a long period whereas emotions may last only for the time being.

3. Emotions are aroused in people by some specific objects or situations. On the other hand, moods are not created in someone because of any specific object or any particular situation.

4. If a person gets angry, he expresses that emotion towards someone. If a person is in a sad mood, he cannot express it to others.

5. When compared to moods, emotions are more extreme.

6. Emotion is a word that has been derived from the French emouvoir.

7. Mood is a word that is derived from the Old English word of Mod, which represented military courage.

— DifferentBetween.net, http://www.differencebetween.net/language/difference-between-mood-and-emotion/

*     *     *     *     *

“leisure is a positive experience accompanied by satisfying and pleasurable moods, emotions or feelings (Mannell, 1980:77).

“The term ‘mood’ is used to denote a specific set of subjective feelings which occur as a consequence of everyday leisure experiences (i.e., excitement, relaxation, awe, happiness).

“… impact of moods on such socially relevant things as the immune system, cognitive skills, and helping behavior.

“Hammitt (1980) and More and Payne (1978) found that moods varied as a result of participation in leisure activities.

“Stone (1987) … found that leisure were significantly associated with positive and desirable moods.

“Mannell, Zusanek, and Larson (1988) reported that leisure activities tend to evoke ‘positive’ mood states.

“… Gunter (1987) identified eight properties of leisure: five of which seem related to moods (pleasure, enjoyment, fantasy, adventure, spontaneity).

“… behavioral, motoric, and physiological states which occur concurrently with subjective feelings of mood and to use these as indicators to denote the onset of mood. [Mood can not be expressed in the same way emotion does]

(about PAD emotional state model)

“It is a measure of how wide awake the organism is, of how ready it is to react. The lower pole of the continuum is represented by sleep or coma, while the upper pole would be reached in state of frantic excitement (Berlyne, 1960:48). Dominance refers to the feeling of control and/or ability to manipulate a situation. … Pleasure is characterized by feelings of satisfaction, comfort, enjoyment, and beauty.

“Light, sound, smell, vibration, taste, temperature all influence pleasure, arousal and dominance.

(In Recreation Activity)

“… whatever the environment is, it is likely to have a significant impact on mood state.

(From the rest parts of this article)

/* Mood has impacts on attention, cognition, behavior and physiology as well as on memories, planning and health.

*     *     *     *     *

“In general, people prefer parks that are both pleasant and arousing.

“Emotions are suggested to be pancultural, innate, and independent of sense modality (Izard, 1997; Osgood, 1969).

“Mehrabian and Russell (1974) present arousal, pleasure, and a third dimension, dominance, as a basis for environmental psychology and review evidence supporting these constructs as legitimate dimensions of  human emotion.

“Three analogous dimensions — activity (arousal), evaluation (pleasure), and potency (dominance) — are supported by the substantial body of semantic differential evidence collected by Osgood and associates (e.g., Osgood rt al, 1957; Osgood, 1969).

“‘Emergent properties’ of molar environments create situations where the sum of the molecular parts may not explain the experience of the whole place.

“specific characteristics of the park will explain some of the variance in residents’ emotional responses to parks.

“one of the reasons people visit parks is to experience an emotion not commonly experienced in a ‘normal’ suburban or urban environment.

— R. Bruce Hull IV, Antony Harvey, Explaining the emotion people experience in suburban parks, Environment and Behavior, Vol. 21 No. 3, May 1989 pp. 323-345

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s